What Are Stimulants, and Which Ones Are Young Adults Abusing?Reading Time: 5 minutes
Young adults are under enormous stress. Between academic pressure, workplace stressors, social anxiety, and struggles with self-worth and mental health, they often feel as if they’re underwater all the time. They don’t have enough hours in the day to fit everything in, and they never get enough sleep.
Stimulant drugs seem to offer a way to cope with these pressures because they boost energy, enhance feelings of confidence and sociability, and create a sense of heightened productivity. However, studies show that prescription stimulants do not increase learning or thinking ability when taken by individuals who have not been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, stimulant drugs have dangerous physical and psychological side effects. In fact, the CDC reports that overdose deaths involving stimulants have been steadily increasing over the past decade.
- The most common prescription stimulants are the ADHD drugs Adderall, Ritalin, Dexadrine, and Concerta.
- Overdoses due to stimulant abuse have been steadily increasing over the decade, according to the CDC.
- There are both physical and psychological effects of stimulant drugs, ranging from paranoia to stroke and heart failure.
- To overcome a substance use disorder, young adults need treatment that addresses underlying causes and mental health challenges.
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What Is a Stimulant Drug?
Stimulant drugs are a category of substances that includes both illicit and prescription drugs. These drugs increase the amount of specific chemicals in the brain, including dopamine, creating feelings of increased alertness and euphoria. Young adults misuse stimulants to get more energy and enhance their ability to focus.
Types of Stimulants
The most common prescription stimulants are the ADHD drugs Adderall, Ritalin, Dexadrine, and Concerta. Other medical stimulants are amphetamine, methylphenidate, and pseudoephedrine. Illicit stimulants include methamphetamine (meth) and crystal meth, cocaine, and bath salts (synthetic cathinones). The party drug MDMA, also known as ecstasy or Molly, is sometimes classified as a stimulant because it has both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties.
When considering the question of what are stimulants, people often wonder whether coffee is a stimulant, since it produces some of the same feelings as stimulant drugs, such as heightened energy, alertness, and focus. Caffeine is a central nervous stimulant, and is often used by athletes and as a “study drug,” like Adderall or Ritalin. However, caffeine does not cause the large dopamine surge that unbalances the reward circuits in the brain and can lead to stimulant addiction. Thus, regular use of caffeine to avoid withdrawal symptoms is known as caffeine dependence rather than stimulant abuse.
The Latest Stats on Stimulant Abuse Among Young Adults
Recent research shows an increase in stimulant drug abuse and overdoses. According to the CDC, overdose deaths involving stimulants is steadily rising, increasing from 12,122 in 2015 to 53,495 in 2021. Overall, the mortality rate involving all stimulants—both medical and illicit stimulants—has more than tripled over the past decade, increasing from three deaths per 100,000 to 9.7 per 100,000. And because young people ages 18–25 are the most likely to use stimulant drugs, they are at the highest risk of overdosing.
College students are the most frequent abusers of common prescription stimulants. A study of college students found that close to half of those who used prescription stimulants did not actually have prescriptions or ADHD diagnoses. Adderall misuse among this age group is particularly high: Adderall misuse peaks among young adults ages 21 and 22, with nearly one out of 10 abusing the drug. A study in the Journal of American College Health found that three-quarters of students who misuse Adderall obtained the drug from friends with prescriptions.
Know the Facts
9.8% of 21- and 22-year-olds use Adderall without a prescription.
How Do Prescription Stimulants Affect the Brain and Body?
Young adults sometimes think that because stimulants come in pill form and are prescribed by doctors, they are safe to take, even if you don’t have your own prescription. However, stimulant drug abuse—involving both prescription stimulants and illicit stimulant drugs—can have serious psychological and physical effects. There are both physical and psychological effects of stimulant drugs, as well as short-term effects of stimulants and long-term effects of stimulants that arise over time.
Common Stimulant Effects
The physical side effects of stimulant misuse include the following:
- High blood pressure and heart rate
- Increased respiratory rate
- Elevated body temperature
- Irregular heartbeat
Long-term effects of stimulants on the body can include:
- Heart failure
- Decreased sexual function
- Tooth decay
- Weight loss
- Premature skin aging
In addition, stimulant effects can also impact the mind and mental health. The psychological side effects of stimulants include:
- Anxiety and confusion
Over time, psychological stimulant effects can include:
- Suicidal thoughts
- Increased risk of suicide
- Psychosis, such as delusions and hallucinations
Signs of Stimulant Addiction
Long-term stimulant addiction is characterized by intense cravings for the drug, increased tolerance, inability to reduce usage, and continuing to use the stimulant despite its negative impact on relationships and daily functioning.
Over time, misuse of stimulants can damage the respiratory, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. Moreover, withdrawal from Adderall and other prescription stimulants can cause intense physical and mental exhaustion, depression, higher sensitivity to stress, trouble thinking and concentrating, and slowed reflexes.
Young Adult Mental Health and Misuse of Stimulants
As with all types of addictive substances, there is a clear link between stimulant misuse or stimulant addiction and mental health issues. For one thing, young adults who misuse stimulants—whether for studying or recreationally—are frequently abusing other drugs as well. Research shows that young people who abuse prescription stimulants are more likely to be dependent on alcohol and/or marijuana, to the point that their everyday functioning is impaired. One study found that college students who misused stimulants were twice as likely to have an alcohol use disorder than those who did not.
In addition, studies show that college students who misuse stimulants are at higher risk for conduct disorder, academic problems, and overall dysfunction. Clearly, young adults are abusing illegal and prescription stimulant drugs not only as a way to enhance study skills and the ability to focus. Especially if they do not have access to mental health services, they may be more likely to misuse stimulants—often in combination with other drugs—to self-medicate distress and mental health challenges.
Rather than being dismissed as an innocuous behavior, nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (in college students) should be seen as a marker or 'red flag' for involvement in other types of illicit drug use, poor academic performance, and possible mental health problems.
Amelia M. Arria
PhD, and Robert L. DuPont, MD, Journal of Addictive Disorders
Treatment for Stimulant Addiction at Newport Institute
At Newport Institute, we address the underlying causes of stimulant addiction, not just the behavioral symptoms. Our expert clinicians and experiential therapists guide young adults to understand the root causes of their drug abuse—the trauma, attachment wounds, anxiety, and/or depression that create a need for self-medication.
In addition, clients in our young adult substance abuse treatment programs learn healthy coping and emotion-regulation skills, so they can more easily navigate the intense emotions and stressors that come with emerging adulthood. Ultimately, each young adult’s unique journey of healing from drug abuse helps them find lasting self-worth—based not in achievement but rather in authentic connection and a sense of meaning and purpose.
Frequently Asked Questions
Can a person overdose on prescription stimulants?
Yes, stimulant overdose can result in seizures, stroke, or death.
What are stimulants in simple terms?
Stimulant drugs are a category of drug that increases the amounts of specific chemicals in the brain, including dopamine, creating feelings of alertness and euphoria.
What are stimulants’ side effects?
Physical side effects of stimulants include high blood pressure, Increased respiratory rate, elevated body temperature, and irregular heartbeat. Psychological effects include hostility, paranoia, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts.
What are the stimulant medications?
The most common prescription stimulants are the ADHD drugs Adderall, Ritalin, Dexadrine, and Concerta. Other medical stimulants are amphetamine, methylphenidate, and pseudoephedrine.
What are the three classes of stimulants?
Stimulants can be divided into three classes based on their chemical structure. These are amphetamine (dextro-amphetamine and levo-amphetamine), methamphetamine, and methylphenidate (dextro-methylphenidate and levo- methylphenidate).